Ένα από τα διασημότερα μνημεία του κόσμου.

Αυτοκρατορική Πόλη ή αλλιώς όπως είναι γνωστή, η Απαγορευμένη Πόλη. Οικοδομήθηκε από την Δυναστεία των Ming μέχρι και το τέλος της Δυναστείας Qing, μεταξύ του 1406 και 1420. Είναι η Πόλη ανάκτορο των αυτοκρατόρων της Κίνας. Βρίσκεται στην καρδιά της παλιάς πόλης του Πεκίνου. Χτίστηκε από διακόσιες χιλιάδες εργάτες σε δεκαέξι χρόνια. Η επιφάνεια της είναι 7 τχ και περιβάλλεται από ένα πανύψηλο τείχος, ύψους 10 μέτρων ενώ τριγύρω από αυτό υπάρχει μια τάφρος πλάτους 52 μέτρων. Αποτελείται από 800 κτίρια και 8.706 αίθουσες. Εκεί ζούσαν 9000 παλλακίδες και 100.000 ευνούχοι.

Η Απαγορευμένη Πόλη (紫禁城 Zǐjìn chéng) ήταν η κατοικία της αυτοκρατορικής οικογένειας κατά τη διάρκεια των τελευταίων δύο Ming και Qing δυναστείες. Το όνομά της προέρχεται από το γεγονός ότι η είσοδος της ήταν απαγορευμένη σε κάθε αλλοδαπό στο παλάτι και η οργάνωσή της ήταν σαν μια μικρή πόλη. Το αρχιτεκτονικό συγκρότημα είναι εντυπωσιακό. Μεγάλη πλειοψηφία των τιμαλφών, όπως πίνακες και πορσελάνες ελήφθησαν στην Ταϊβάν από την Τσιάνγκ Κάι – σεκ ( Jiǎng Jieshi στην κινεζική γλώσσα ) και εκτίθενται στο Μουσείο της Ταϊπέι (Taibei στο Mandarin )

Η Απαγορευμένη Πόλη βρίσκεται στο βόρειο τμήμα του κέντρου της πόλης του Πεκίνου, έχει 960μ μήκος και 750μ πλάτος. Τα τοίχοι της είναι από 7 έως 10 μέτρα ψηλά και η τάφρος έχει 52μ πλάτος. Κατά τη διάρκεια της κατοχής της από τους αυτοκράτορες των τελευταίων δύο δυναστειών και για πέντε ολόκληρους αιώνες, κανένα άλλο κτίριο στο Πεκίνο δεν μπορούσε να υπερβεί αυτό  της Απαγορευμένης Πόλης. Οι αυλές του είναι στρωμένες με σχεδόν 12 εκατομμύρια τούβλα και αποτελείται από περίπου 9.000 δωμάτια. Τα τούβλα κατασκευάστηκαν από άσπρο ασβέστη και ρύζι. Το τσιμέντο κατασκευάστηκε από ρύζι με γλουτένη και ασπράδια αυγού. Αυτά τα δύο υλικά έκαναν τους τοίχους της εξαιρετικά ισχυρούς. Το χρώμα που κυριαρχεί είναι το κίτρινο, σύμβολο της βασιλικής οικογένειας. Κίτρινα είναι τα τζάμια που είναι χτισμένες οι στέγες, οι ζωγραφιές του παλατιού στους τοίχους καθώς και τα τούβλα στο έδαφος, τα οποία με μια ειδική διαδικασία έγιναν και αυτά κίτρινα.

Επίσης συναντάμε πολύ και το κόκκινο χρώμα το οποίο συμβολίζει ευοίωνες εκδηλώσεις, ευτυχία και κινέζικους εορτασμούς.

Το μαύρο χρώμα για τους κινέζους συμβολίζει το νερό, γι αυτό και η στέγη της Βασιλικής Βιβλιοθήκης είναι μαύρη, καθώς πίστευαν ότι θα μπορούσε να σβήσει μια επικείμενη φωτιά.

Στο κέντρο της Απαγορευμένης Πόλης βρίσκεται ο Ναός του Ουρανού. Ένα κομψοτέχνημα κινέζικης Τέχνης, φτιαγμένος από ξύλο με εντυπωσιακά χρώματα αναλλοίωτα στο χρόνο, όπου κυριαρχεί το κόκκινο.

Είναι κτισμένη σε ορθογώνιο σχήμα και θεωρείται από τα μεγαλύτερα συγκροτήματα παλατιών στο κόσμο.

Ο Αυτοκράτορας Γιονγκλ είναι αυτός που αποφάσισε να μεταφέρει την πρωτεύουσα από το Nanjing στο Πεκίνο. Η Κατασκευή της ξεκίνησε το 1406 και διήρκησε δεκατέσσερα χρόνια. Στην κατασκευή του συμμετείχαν περισσότεροι από διακόσιες χιλιάδες τεχνίτες και τα υλικά που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν προέρχονταν από όλες τις γωνιές της αυτοκρατορίας.

Country: China
Site: Juanqinzhai
Caption: Post-restoration theater room gate
Image Date: 2008
Photographer: Jia Yue, Palace Museum
Provenance: related to Scala book
Original: from WMF to be filed

Country: China
Site: Juanqinzhai
Caption: Post-restoration interior
Image Date: 2008
Photographer: Si Bing, Palace Museum
Provenance: Site Visit
Original: from digital CD CHN039

Οι πέτρες από τις περιοχές του Πεκίνου, το μάρμαρο από την Σαγκάη, το ξύλο από τις επαρχίες Γιουνάν και Σιτσουάν, τα τούβλα από το Shandong. Χρησιμοποιήθηκαν σύγχρονες τεχνικές για την εποχή, χωρίς όμως να αλλοιωθούν τα αισθητικά και συμβολικά χαρακτηριστικά της παράδοσής τους. Η Απαγορευμένη Πόλη έμεινε αποκομμένη από τον έξω κόσμο, μέχρι το 1924, όταν ο Puyi, ο τελευταίος αυτοκράτορας της διώχτηκε.

Μπορεί πλέον να μην είναι απαγορευμένη, όμως δεν παύει και δεν θα πάψει ποτέ να είναι από τα εκπληκτικότερα μνημεία του κόσμου.

Πηγή: http://www.chine-culture.com

Σύνταξη κειμένου: Πολυξένη Γκιούρη

05/06/2019

Η πηγή φωτογραφιών από το internet με επεξεργασία.

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